During his first year at Walden Pond, Thoreau cultivated about two and a half acres of Emerson's land, planting and tending potatoes, corn, peas, turnips and, chiefly, beans. What he didn't eat he sold. Contrary to popular belief, he went to town frequently, entertained visitors at the cabin and once even hosted a large picnic there for an abolition society. But mostly he worked at his desk, where he accomplished a great deal of writing. Drawing on a two-week-long trip to Mount Katahdin in Maine and his brief arrest in Concord for failing to pay his poll tax, he wrote essays on "Katahdin" and "Civil Disobedience" (which remains the preeminent American statement of the primacy of individual conscience). He wrote one book (A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers) and the draft of a second (Walden).
In his writings, and in Walden above all, Thoreau forged a thought-out way of life, a philosophy that insists that the individual turn not to the state, not to the gods, not to society, or even to history for a guide to life, but to nature and the self. But this turn to nature and the self should not be confused with selfishness. It is not the final destination but only the starting point of the examined life. Thoreau's social side is everywhere in Walden. "I had more visitors while I lived in the woods," he says in the chapter "Visitors," "than at any other period of my life."
Thoreau's second great achievement is one he shares with Emerson and other American Transcendentalists: the articulation of the social imperatives of their movement. If I wish to be free, the Transcendalists argued, then all must wish to be free, and none may be denied freedom. In the formulation of the African-American writer and leader Frederick Douglass, "there is not a man beneath the canopy of heaven who does not know that slavery is wrong, for him."
Thoreau's activism led him to make speeches and organize meetings to protest slavery, to work for the Underground Railroad, to defend the abolitionist John Brown and help get one of his men to Canada, and to write "Civil Disobedience." Walden is full of incisive social and economic analysis. "I cannot believe that our factory system is the best mode by which men may get clothing.... The principal object is, not that mankind may be well and honestly clad, but, unquestionably, that the corporations may be enriched."
Thoreau's third great achievement is that he first articulated America's conservation ethic. When Thoreau said, famously, "in Wildness is the preservation of the world," he means the preservation of civilization too. "Our village life would stagnate," he wrote in Walden," if it were not for the unexplored forests and meadows which surround it. We need the tonic of wildness."
Walden was published on August 9, 1854, to mostly good reviews, and it developed a small but steady following. It sold roughly 300 copies a year for the next 15 years. The naturalist John Muir read it, as did poets William Butler Yeats and Robert Frost. After a brief dip in popularity in the 1870s and early 1880s, the book began the steady climb that carried it through the 20th century and that shows no signs of slowing.
Thoreau's Walden speaks to our modern condition because it is mostly right about the big things. Open the book anywhere: One should beware of all enterprises that require new clothes. A person is rich in proportion to the number of things he can afford to let alone. Morning does bring back the heroic ages. The Universe is wider than our views of it. Heaven is under our feet as well as over our heads. The sun is but a morning star.
One hundred fifty years after its publication, Walden also remains a practical, usable manual on how to lead a good, just life. It offers readers an ethical view of life that begins in self-rule and ends in public and social commitment to the next generation. Gandhi picked this idea up from Thoreau, among others, and he put it with admirable pith and sinew. "[Real home rule] is self-rule or self-control.... If man will only realize that it is unmanly to obey laws that are unjust, no man's tyranny will enslave him," Gandhi wrote in Indian Home Rule. At its core, Walden is about the project of personal freedom, self-emancipation, which is where all pursuits of freedom must start.
Thoreau left Walden Pond in 1847, saying he had "several more lives to live." He stayed for a while with the Emersons; he traveled to Maine and Cape Cod. He read Darwin's Origin of Species and felt that it squared with his own observations. He spent years gathering material for a never-realized "Calendar of Concord," an ambitious design to record even the smallest natural fact about Concord and thus make of it a microcosm of nature as a whole. One day in 1860 while he was out counting the rings of recently cut trees, he caught a cold, which turned to bronchitis and then aggravated an existing case of tuberculosis. Thoreau died on May 6, 1862, as the Civil War was raging. He was 44.
Sir John Franklin not only never found the Northwest Passage, he never returned to England. His wife sent out expedition after expedition to find him. "Is Franklin the only man who is lost, that his wife should be so earnest to find him?" Thoreau asks in the conclusion of Walden. Then he gives us his final bit of advice. "Be rather the Mungo Park, the Lewis and Clark and Frobisher, of your own streams and oceans. Explore your own higher latitudes." That task is just as hard now as it was in 1854, and Henry Thoreau is still one of the best guides around.