Stunt/Gap - On defense, if you wanted to slow down an attacking offensive player on the counter-attack, you may “stunt” or “gap.” It is a fake out; you pretend like you are going to go at the offensive player. The motion stops that player from moving forward and allows your teammates time to close in to help.
Fouls - One whistle is an ordinary foul. Ordinary fouls, usually made by the defense, are not added up and counted against you like in basketball. Two whistles indicate an offensive foul, meaning the offensive player did something illegal to gain an unfair offensive advantage. The ball immediately turns over to the defense. Three whistles means there has been an exclusion/ejection. Similar to hockey, the offending player has to sit in the ejection box for 20 seconds, and the offensive team gets a 6x5 advantage.
In basketball, a player holding the ball can get fouled; in water polo, the offensive player must let go of the ball in order to draw a foul. While the player is holding the ball, the defense can do almost anything short of dunking or punching a player, but once the offensive player releases the ball, the defense must let go and get off of the offensive player in order to avoid a foul being called.
Defenders sometimes sink or hold back an opponent, especially to take away a scoring opportunity, but this warrants a major foul. Three major fouls per game (20 seconds in the penalty box each time) and you are out.
2004 - In Athens, the women had to play on a 30-meter-long course, which is usually reserved for men. For 2008, the women’s course was switched back to its traditional 25 meters. It has been kept at 25 meters for 2012 as well.
2005 - In most sports, whoever touches the ball last before it goes out of bounds stays on defense, and the offensive team retains possession. However, in water polo, thanks to a rule change in 2005, if the field player (any defensive player other than the goalie) tips the ball out of play on a deflected shot or pass, that defensive team takes over possession. If the goalie tips the ball out of play, the offense retains possession.
2008 - Prior to the 2008 Olympics, when an offensive player was fouled, she would always have to “get live” by passing the ball to a teammate and getting it back before she took a shot on goal. Now, if she is outside the 5-meter marker, she may shoot the ball directly after she is fouled, but it must be in one fluid motion with no fakes or hesitation.