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The single autopsy photo of John Wilkes Booth has not been seen since April 27, 1865 and its whereabouts are unknown. (Getty Images)

Documenting the Death of an Assassin

In 1865, a single photograph was taken during the autopsy of John Wilkes Booth. Where is it now?

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When President Barack Obama announced this week that he would not release postmortem pictures of Osama bin Laden, people around the world immediately questioned his decision.

The debate today echoes a similar controversy involving John Wilkes Booth, the man who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln.

On April 26, 1865—12 days after he shot Lincoln at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C.—Booth himself was cornered and shot in a Virginia barn. He died from his wound that day. His body was taken back to Washington and then aboard the USS Montauk for an autopsy.

The administration, led by Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, ordered that a single photograph be taken of Booth’s corpse, says Bob Zeller, president of the Center for Civil War Photography. On April 27, 1865, many experts agree, famed Civil War photographer Alexander Gardner and his assistant Timothy O’Sullivan took the picture.

It hasn’t been seen since, and its whereabouts are unknown.

“Stanton was a guy who really took charge,” Zeller says. And in this case, Zeller says, he was “trying to control photographs of Booth’s body so he would not be a martyr or lionized.” In the short term, however, the absence of the image buoyed conspiracy theories that Lincoln’s assassin was still alive.

The Booth photo wasn’t the first image that Stanton would have censored. The war secretary was incensed after a photograph of Lincoln’s body in its casket, taken as the slain president lay in Governor’s Room at New York City Hall, was printed in the evening editions of New York newspapers, Zeller writes in The Blue and Gray in Black and White: A History of Civil War Photography.

“I cannot sufficiently express my surprise and disapproval of such an act while the body was in your charge,” Stanton wrote to Gen. Edward D. Townsend, who assisted with Lincoln’s funeral. “...You will direct the provost-marshal to go to the photographer, seize and destroy the plates and any pictures or engravings that may have been made, and consider yourself responsible if the offense is repeated.”

The Booth controversy arose soon afterward, when the New York Tribune reported on April 28 that a photograph of Booth’s body had been taken aboard the Montauk.

A crucial account of what happened while Gardner and O’Sullivan were on the ship, Zeller says, comes from James A. Wardell, a former government detective who had been assigned to accompany the two men. Wardell’s account, given in 1896 to a historian who was searching for the missing Booth photograph, appears in Witness to an Era: The Life and Photographs of Alexander Gardner, by D. Mark Katz:

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