My work as a wildlife writer often takes me to the Amazon and the African grasslands. I tell friends back home they don't really need to travel to see wildlife: the insects and other weird little creatures in our own backyards are at least as interesting as any elephant. But I can tell they don't much believe me. So I was curious to see what would turn up one weekend last summer at a BioBlitz in Hartford, Connecticut, a nearby city not generally known for unusual life-forms.
A BioBlitz is an event in which dozens of scientists fan out across some unlikely habitat, hell-bent on recording every species they can find, dead or alive, in a 24-hour period. The scientists launching themselves into Hartford's 695-acre Keney Park at 3 p.m. that Friday were armed with spotting scopes, sweep nets, pit traps, scalpels and fish stunners. They were prepared to dance like butterflies, sing like chickadees or do almost anything else this scavenger hunt required. One collector was seeking someone to donate bait for his dung beetle trap. Another was erecting what looked like a device for extracting sunbeams from cucumbers.
It consisted of a big galvanized-steel funnel mounted on a tripod, and it was actually meant to extract animals from soil samples. With a coffee can, a slight, white-bearded man named Carl Rettenmeyer cut out a disk of grassy soil and leaf litter "about the size of a quarter-pounder, with lettuce." This sample would sit overnight on a screen in mid-funnel, with an electric light overhead to make things uncomfortable, and a killing jar below to collect whatever came creeping out.
By Saturday afternoon, the "quarter-pounder" of lawn alone would yield 23 separate species, and 89 individual animals, including mites, thrips and an awful lot of springtails, "little bitty things smaller than the head of a pin." The springtails run around with their tails tucked under their abdomens, spring-loaded so that, in case of danger, they can execute a "we-outta-here" backflip, six inches into the air. It is a skill two-legged city-dwellers can only envy.
"The area of the sample is 11.044639 square inches," Rettenmeyer said. "Now multiply that by..." Then he came up with his best estimate: that there are 50 million individuals in just the top inch of soil in an ordinary acre here, and 35 billion animals in Keney Park — nearly six for every man, woman and child on earth.
"People are hearing that word ‘biodiversity,' but they think it's in the rain forest," said Ellen Censky, director of the Connecticut State Museum of Natural History at the University of Connecticut. "The BioBlitz is a way of letting them know there's a lot of biodiversity right here."
It's also a lark, the closest most scientists will ever get to a varsity sport. Censky is a wry, enterprising sort who once proposed a museum exhibit that consisted of a dead elephant in a room full of flesh-eating dermestid beetles. It didn't happen (some nitpicky problem with ventilation), but it showed a certain flair for ecological entertainment.
BioBlitzes have become regular events around the country since the first one took place four years ago in Washington, D.C. Censky's team was hoping to top the record of 1,905 species found in a 1998 biodiversity survey around Walden Pond, outside Boston. She had assembled her roster with a coach's eye for covering all positions, from fish-squeezers to bat-grabbers. She was piling on entomologists with a knack for quickly identifying obscure insects. She had specialty teams, too, including an algae expert and a parasitologist.
Out in a wooded section of the park, a herpetologist named Hank Gruner had just caught a garter snake, which promptly regurgitated a wood frog. Two species for the price of one. Gruner started flipping over old furniture someone had dumped. "Herpetologists love debris," he said, snatching up a writhing, glossy-purplish creature in his palm, his 25th red-backed salamander in the past hour. "By biomass, they actually outweigh the birds, and they're equal to the small mammals," he said, letting it go again. "All that with no lungs. They breathe by diffusion through their skin and through their throat."
Elsewhere in this depressed neighborhood in Hartford's north end, the algae expert found a green alga closely related to the one from which all land plants on earth appear to have evolved. Coleochaete grows on cattails and rushes, she said, and it's probably 500 million years old. Keney Park was also discovered to be home to freshwater sponges, as well as to symbiotic algae, which live on the sponges and spoon-feed them the by-products of photosynthesis. The larvae of two species of spongilla fly feed, in turn, on the sponges, sucking up a soup of algae and cellular fluids. One species moves away from the sponge just about the time of year the other arrives to make its home there, like vacationers time-sharing a condo.